1860 surgeons removed the thyroid goiters in the hyperthyroid patients, but it killed them. In the ones that survived the hyperthyoid condition improved. 1880 they could remove the thyroid without killing many of them. 1890 the use of excessive amounts of animal thyroid extract to treat hypothyroidism lead to a similar nervous condition as natural hyperthyroid. These facts lead to finally believing the thyroid gland was the true cause of the hyperthyroidism. Finally in 1990 could we think of excess thyroid hormone as the cause and call it thyrotoxicosis. In 1890 it also meant either it secretes or fails to inactivate a toxin. The true name is hyperthyroidism as it is an excess secretion of hormones not toxins. The successful partial removal of the thyroid 100 years ago focused attention on the thyroid gland. Present treatment now includes drugs and radioiodine.